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1 Nevertheless, according to the Central American Institute for Fiscal Studies (Instituto Centroamericano for Estudios Fiscales), the contribution of metallic mining was a minuscule 0.3% of the country's GDP between 2010 and 2015.

2 In 1999, he introduced a lower tax band of 10%. He abolished this 10% tax band in his last budget in 2007 to reduce the basic rate from 22% to 20%, increasing tax for 5 million people and, according to the calculations of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, leaving those earning between £5,000 and £18,000 as the biggest losers.

3 His current appointments include Presidential Scholar-in-Residence at the University of Southern California's Leonard D. Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economics (2015-) and International Research Fellow at the Institute for Fiscal Studies (2014-).

4 According to Neil Veldhuis, Director of Fiscal Studies, Fraser Institute, the purpose of Tax Freedom Day is to provide citizens of tax-paying countries with a metric with which to estimate their "total tax bill".

5 The Institute for Fiscal Studies has found that, after controlling for differences in student characteristics, graduates in medicine and economics earn (on average) 20% more and graduates in business, computing and architecture 10% more than average graduates, while graduates in creative arts earn 15% less.

6 In a big data research by the Institute for Fiscal Studies, University of Cambridge and Harvard University, it was revealed the top 10% of King's male graduates working in England were the 7th highest earning students 10 years after graduation in comparison to graduates of all Higher Education providers (both multi and uni-disciplinary universities) in the UK and the top 10% of its female graduates were the 9th highest earning students 10 years after graduation in the same study.

7 The Institute for Fiscal Studies maintains real spending on schooling per pupil has dropped by 8% since 2010.

8 In July 2007, Campbell unveiled tax proposals that amounted to a large shift in the tax burden (certified as revenue-neutral by the non-partisan Institute for Fiscal Studies) away from low-income and middle-income earners and onto higher-earners and pollution.

9 The Institute for Fiscal Studies is based at Ridgmount Street and the Royal Anthropological Institute Main office is at 50 Fitzroy Street.

10 He is currently a visiting professor at King's College London where he works with the Policy Institute at King's, a visiting professor at the Cass Business School, a board member of the Institute for Fiscal Studies and a visiting fellow at Nuffield College, Oxford.

11 The Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) is an economic research institute based in London, United Kingdom, which specialises in UK taxation and public policy.

12 Will Hopper proposed the name 'Institute for Fiscal Studies'. 'Fiscal' was selected rather than just 'tax' "because we wished to include the other side of fisc.

13 In 1979, the Fiscal Studies publication was launched and the Working Paper series began.

14 It also produces a peer-reviewed quarterly journal, Fiscal Studies, which publishes articles submitted by a range of academics and practitioners in the field.

15 The tax campaigner Richard Murphy, a professor of political economy at City University who advised in Jeremy Corbyn's campaign for the Labour leadership, said the IFS was 'embedded in all the normal, standard pro-market assumptions that dominate conventional economic thinking in the UK and elsewhere'." Richard Murphy also stated in a report that the "Institute for Fiscal Studies is a body that persistently recommends tax increases that benefit the wealthiest in society at cost to those who make their living from work and the poorest in society".

16 On another occasion, the right-leaning magazine The Spectator published a leader stating that "'institutes' funded by research grants (which means, usually, tax money) will always argue for more expensive meddling by the state" and that the Institute for Fiscal Studies was "the most striking example" of this.

17 The Institute for Fiscal Studies has been rated as 'highly transparent' in its funding by Transparify and has been a given a A grade for funding transparency by Who Funds You?

18 He then worked at the Institute for Fiscal Studies in London, where he specialised in researching into poverty, taxes and benefits.

19 With the ESRC and HEFCE it funds Q-Step, a £19.5 million programme designed to promote a step-change in quantitative methods training for social science undergraduates in the UK. Together with the Institute for Fiscal Studies the Nuffield Foundation funded a proposal for a revision of the British tax system.

20 In 1970, he helped to launch the Institute for Fiscal Studies, now an influential independent think tank and was the first Director, later chairman.