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1 Records show that shortly thereafter, Emperor Uda assigned scholars Sukeyo and Kiyoyuki, supporters of Mototsune, to provincial posts in the remote provinces of Mutsu and Higo respectively.

2 The Hosokawa sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu during the decisive Sekigahara Campaign, and thus were made fudai (inside) daimyō under the Tokugawa shogunate, they were given Higo Province, with an income of 540,000 koku, as their han (fief).

3 Also exerting great influence during this time was a samurai clan operating along the Genkai Sea called the Matsuratō. Upon entering the Sengoku period, the Ryūzōji clan expanded their control to include all of Hizen and Chikugo Provinces, and part of Higo and Chikuzen Provinces.

4 The Hōjō clan sent the Higo clan as deputy governors.

5 A branch line of the Higo clan made itself autonomous on Tanegashima after the Hōjō clan was annihilated and began to claim the clan name of Tanegashima.

6 They were given Higo Province, with an income of 540,000 koku, as their han (fief).

7 Statue of Miyamoto Musashi à Ōhara-chō. Though the Hosokawa domain was far from the capital, on Kyūshū, they were among the wealthiest of the daimyōs. By 1750, Higo was one of the top producers of rice, and was in fact counted as a standard by the Osaka rice brokers.

8 Soon Shōzan was ambushed and attacked by a small group of assassins from the Higo and Oki clans in broad daylight.

9 It was sometimes called Hishū (肥州), with Higo Province.

10 The name "Hizen" dates from the Nara period Ritsuryō Kokugunri system reforms, when the province was divided from Higo Province.

11 Higo Province (肥後国, Higo no kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area that is today Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū. It was sometimes called Hishū (肥州), with Hizen Province.

12 The castle town of Higo was usually at Kumamoto City.

13 During the Muromachi period, Higo was held by the Kikuchi clan, but they were dispossessed during the Sengoku period, and the province was occupied by neighboring lords, including the Shimazu clan of Satsuma, until Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded Kyūshū and gave Higo to his retainers, first Sassa Narimasa and later Katō Kiyomasa.

14 During the Sengoku Period, Higo was a major center for Christianity in Japan, and it is also the location where the philosopher, the artist and swordsman Miyamoto Musashi stayed at the Hosokawa daimyō's invitation, Hosokawa Tadatoshi third lord of Kumamoto, while completing his The Book of Five Rings.

15 Maps of Japan and Higo Province were reformed in the 1870s.

16 For example, Higo is explicitly recognized in treaties in 1894 (a) between Japan and the United States and (b) between Japan and the United Kingdom.