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1 A village is called a kotan in the Ainu language.

2 Kotan were located in river basins and seashores where food was readily available, particularly in the basins of rivers through which salmon went upstream.

3 Ainu kotan were also forced to move near fishing grounds so that the Japanese could secure a labor force.

4 When the Japanese moved to other fishing grounds, Ainu kotan were also forced to accompany them.

5 As a result, the traditional kotan disappeared and large villages of several dozen families were formed around the fishing grounds.

6 Cise or cisey (houses) in a kotan were made of cogon grass, bamboo grass, bark, etc.

7 Kotan-kar-kamuy is regarded as the creator of the world in the Ainu religion.