Tectonic subsidence, a rising water table and storm surges combined to flood some areas with marine transgressions.
In the southern North Sea, due to ongoing tectonic subsidence, the coastline and sea bed are sinking at the rate of about 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) per century (1 metre or 39 inches in last 3000 years).
Coeval absolute sea-level rise and tectonic subsidence have strongly influenced delta evolution.
However, it does not form a proportional delta, owing to a strong north-flowing sea current close to the shore, to the steep shelving of the coast, and to slow tectonic subsidence.
Orogeny took place continuously and tectonic subsidence has produced the gaps in between.
These processes generally take from tens of thousands to millions of years, through plate tectonics, tectonic subsidence and crustal recycling.
It was separated from the rest of the San Joaquin Valley by tectonic subsidence and alluvial fans extending out from Los Gatos Creek in the Coast Ranges and the Kings River in the Sierra Nevada.
They are characteristic of fault-bounded basins and can be 5,000 meters (16,000 ft) or more thick due to tectonic subsidence of the basin and uplift of the mountain front.