Special damages can include direct losses (such as amounts the claimant had to spend to try to mitigate damages) and consequential or economic losses resulting from lost profits in a business.
Both are in the eastern Ukraine and have sustained direct losses as a consequence of military actions.
It was estimated that the British Empire incurred direct losses of 52 to 62 million pounds a year due to malaria sickness each year.
A model from one study by Speers et al. calculated direct losses to fisheries from decreased coral cover to be around $49–69 billion, if human societies continue to emit high levels of greenhouse gases.
At least 20% of businesses surrounding the heavily affected area took direct losses, while 2% had direct losses of over $10,000.
Those that did receive aid had no help with indirect losses.
Indirect losses varied from inventory or data corruption, disruption in the workplace, productivity, etc.