An assignment proper can never be of the form a.x := v as this violates information hiding;
Principles of modularity were strengthened by Larry Constantine's concepts of coupling (to be minimized between modules) and cohesion (to be maximized within modules), by David Parnas's techniques of information hiding, and by abstract data types.
He has made trailblazing contributions that helped establish a number of new research topics, including security usability, hardware tamper-resistance, information hiding, and the analysis of application programming interfaces.
Information hiding is a design principle in much software engineering.
PHP also supports Generators since 5.5. The simplest implementation is by wrapping an array, this can be useful for type hinting and information hiding.
thus, information hiding is defined as a separate notion by those who prefer the second definition.
Information hiding is accomplished by furnishing a compiled version of the source code that is interfaced via a header file.
Encapsulation is a means of information hiding.
On the other hand, normal design criteria such as information hiding, encapsulation and the separation of concerns should not be compromised.
David Lorge Parnas (born February 10, 1941) is a Canadian early pioneer of software engineering, who developed the concept of information hiding in modular programming, which is an important element of object-oriented programming today.
However, in Parnas's seminal 1972 paper On the Criteria to Be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules, this dictum is expressed in terms of information hiding, and the terms cohesion and coupling are not used.
Description: The importance of modularization and information hiding.
Note that information hiding was first presented in a different paper of the same author – "Information Distributions Aspects of Design Methodology", Proceedings of IFIP Congress '71, 1971, Booklet TA-3, pp. 26–30. Description: The beginning of Object-oriented programming.