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1 Many scientists were also reminded of the Mössbauer effect, a process involving nuclear transitions in a solid.

2 Furthermore, nonlinearity of the oscillating cloud would produce both spatial and temporal harmonics, so nuclear transitions of higher multipolarity could also be driven at multiples of the laser frequency.

3 NAA is significantly different from other spectroscopic analytical techniques in that it is based not on electronic transitions but on nuclear transitions.

4 The emission and absorption of X-rays by gases had been observed previously, and it was expected that a similar phenomenon would be found for gamma rays, which are created by nuclear transitions (as opposed to X-rays, which are typically produced by electronic transitions).

5 In general, gamma rays are produced by nuclear transitions from an unstable high-energy state to a stable low-energy state.