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1 Many scientists were also reminded of the Mössbauer effect, a process involving nuclear transitions in a solid.

2 In Munich, Germany in 1957 Rudolf Mössbauer, in what has been called one of the "landmark experiments in twentieth-century physics", discovered the resonant and recoil-free emission and absorption of gamma rays by atoms in a solid metal sample containing only Ir. This phenomenon, known as the Mössbauer effect (which has since been observed for other nuclei, such as Fe), and developed as Mössbauer spectroscopy, has made important contributions to research in physics, chemistry, biochemistry, metallurgy, and mineralogy.

3 More recently, Friedwardt Winterberg proposed that a matter-antimatter GeV gamma ray laser photon rocket is possible by a relativistic proton-antiproton pinch discharge, where the recoil from the laser beam is transmitted by the Mössbauer effect to the spacecraft.

4 One method to reach relativistic velocities uses a matter-antimatter GeV gamma ray laser photon rocket made possible by a relativistic proton-antiproton pinch discharge, where the recoil from the laser beam is transmitted by the Mössbauer effect to the spacecraft.

5 The Mössbauer effect, or recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence, is a physical phenomenon discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1958.

6 In the Mössbauer effect, a narrow resonance for nuclear gamma emission and absorption results from the momentum of recoil being delivered to a surrounding crystal lattice rather than to the emitting or absorbing nucleus alone.

7 The Mössbauer effect was one of the last major discoveries in physics to be originally reported in the German language.

8 The Mössbauer Effect is a process in which a nucleus emits or absorbs gamma rays without loss of energy to a nuclear recoil.

9 For his dissertation, he conducted laboratory research to further develop a model for understanding the Mössbauer effect with Nobel Laureate Rudolf Mössbauer.

10 This effect, called the Mössbauer effect, is the basis for Mössbauer spectroscopy.

11 In his PhD work, he discovered recoilless nuclear fluorescence of gamma rays in 191 iridium, the Mössbauer effect.

12 The long-term importance of the Mössbauer effect, however, is its use in Mössbauer spectroscopy.

13 She also did research on magnetism and the Mössbauer effect during the 1960s.

14 While still an undergraduate, he published a paper on the Mössbauer effect, pointing out a crucial issue other researchers had overlooked.

15 Because of limited computational methods available at the time, this research narrowly missed revealing the Mössbauer Effect, 19 years before its recognition by Mössbauer.