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1 If property was stolen, or someone was injured or killed, the guilty person would have to pay weregild as restitution to the victim's family, or to the owner of the property.

2 A classic version of this criticism was given by H. J. McCloskey in his 1957 "sheriff scenario:" Suppose that a sheriff were faced with the choice either of framing a Negro for a rape that had aroused hostility to the Negroes (a particular Negro generally being believed to be guilty but whom the sheriff knows not to be guilty)—and thus preventing serious anti-Negro riots which would probably lead to some loss of life and increased hatred of each other by whites and Negroes—or of hunting for the guilty person and thereby allowing the anti-Negro riots to occur, while doing the best he can to combat them.

3 Song judges specified the guilty person or party in a criminal act and meted out punishments accordingly, often in the form of caning.

4 It described their form of capital punishment as having the guilty person being stuffed into a "feather bag" and thrown into the sea.